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Knee Replacement in India | GoMedii

Knee Replacement in India

Knee Replacement in India: Knee replacement surgery is a method of replacing a damaged or worn knee joint with an artificial joint. The medical term for this type of surgery is ‘arthroplasty’. The purpose of knee replacement surgery (arthroplasty) is to relieve knee pain and improve movement. There are two types of knee surgery depending on the condition of the knee:

Types of knee replacements

There are different types of knee joint replacements. The type of replacement depends on the age and condition of the knee. If you have a specific question about your own knee replacement, please contact us, we’ll be happy to help you.

Medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

The most common reason for a medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty is that the medial joint surface is damaged, due to:


osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The high specificity (98.2%) of the CRP in this study is quite interesting.

This may serve as a better diagnostic marker in non-rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to serum CRP which has only 67% specificity in PJI Similar observations were made in a study where serum CRP had a sensitivity of only 36.8% and CRP was able to rule out chronic PJI with the same positive predictive value as of another synovial mark

Patellofemoral arthritis

Patellofemoral arthritis (PFA), also called patellofemoral osteoarthritis, is osteoarthritis (OA) involving the patellofemoral joints. This condition most commonly affects the lateral side of the knee and is often attributed to habitual patellar maltracking, which occurs due to an anatomical anomaly of the patellofemoral joint or by repetitive trauma of the joint.

Patellofemoral arthritis tends to affect older adults and may present as anterior knee pain, intermittent claudication, or a limp.


The most common pathophysiology of PFA is abnormal tracking of the patella. Patellar maltracking results from the quadriceps muscle being placed in the anterior aspect of the joint, thereby pulling the patella (kneecap) into the trochlea (a triangular notch in the distal femur).

Other causes include patellofemoral malalignment, which is when the femoral trochlea (which guides the patella) is not in its correct anatomic position.

PFA, similar to lateral compartment arthritis, is the most commonly seen type of OA. The incidence of patellofemoral arthritis increases with age, affecting 30% of adults over age 65 and 44% of those over age 80.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms include intermittent claudication, anterior knee pain, and a limp. A characteristic feature is a step during ambulation that requires extra effort, known as a “stair-step gait”.

Anterior knee pain is typically located in the anterior aspect of the knee and can be triggered by flexion, squatting, or prolonged activity, such as running. The pain is most often exacerbated by patellofemoral maltracking, which may develop from overactivity and hypermobility of the knee.


X-ray imaging of the knee will identify the joint space narrowing that results from OA. The OA features are irregular, uneven erosion of the articular surfaces, usually of the patella and of the tibiofemoral joint. X-ray findings of OA of the knee include joint space narrowing, bone spurs, and degenerative changes to the articular cartilage.

The knee joint space (joint space refers to the space between the distal femur and the proximal tibia) is important in the ability to achieve good function after total knee replacement. The joint space is assessed on a pre-operative X-ray. An important outcome of the surgery is whether the joint space can be restored. This can be measured by postoperative MRI.


Knee replacement surgery will also detect problems that may require treatment before or during the knee replacement surgery. For example, if there is an abnormal subchondral bone that might be problematic at the time of implantation of the artificial knee joint, a computerized tomographic scan may be useful in detecting this problem before the knee replacement surgery.

Other conditions, such as severe OA of the knee, which is an indication for knee replacement surgery, can be detected by the MRI of the knee joint, and an assessment of the bone and soft tissues in the knee can be undertaken.

The diagnosis is made by medical history, clinical evaluation, and MRI. X-rays should include anteroposterior and lateral views. Radiographs should also include a long-leg view for a complete evaluation of the tibiofemoral joint.

Clinical signs are the most important tool to diagnose OA. They include:
  • Joint pain
  • Decrease in knee function
  • Problems arising from the weight bearing on the operated limb
  • These clinical findings are used to evaluate the radiographs. MRI is also a useful tool, especially if X-rays do not show clear radiological signs of OA.
  • The evaluation of OA of the knee should include
  • Treatment

Treatment of PFA is focused on control of the pain and improvement in quality of life, with surgical intervention reserved for symptomatic patients who are not able to improve with conservative measures. Medication is typically prescribed, but physical therapy may be required to control the pain.

Treatment consists of a combination of patellofemoral exercise, medication, and physical therapy.

Total knee replacement:

This may be necessary if the entire knee joint is damaged.

A knee replacement requires the use of metal and plastic instruments and requires an open surgical procedure. During the procedure, the surgeon will remove the damaged portion of the knee joint. A plastic and metal implant is then used to replace the removed joint. Knee replacements may last 10-15 years.

Replacement of all joints in the body:

This is also called total joint replacement (JTR) and may be performed when all joints of a patient have been damaged. The procedure requires the use of metal and plastic instruments and may require an open surgical procedure. During the procedure, the surgeon will replace the damaged joint with metal and plastic joints. This procedure lasts 5-15 years and is considered a life-long procedure.

Ligament repair:

This is performed on a daily basis by millions of surgeons. The surgery requires an arthroscopy and small incisions. A torn ligament is repaired using surgical sutures and may require a cast to heal. Recovery is lengthy and sometimes involves physical therapy to regain the normal function of the knee.

Tendon repair:

These are commonly referred to as “tennis elbows”. This surgery is performed on a daily basis by millions of orthopedic surgeons and requires an arthroscopy and small incisions. A torn ligament is repaired using surgical sutures and may require a cast to heal. Recovery is lengthy and often requires physical therapy to regain the normal function of the elbow.

Bones on the hands and feet

This is the most commonly performed surgery. Over 75% of people who have joint replacement will be prescribed narcotics or other pain medications during the recovery process. This allows the body to heal the new joints and is one of the reasons that joint replacement surgery is so successful.

A broken or fractured bone in the foot, ankle, or knee can lead to pain, swelling, tenderness, and the inability to weight bear. If a broken bone can’t be set properly or cannot heal properly, a joint replacement may be needed.

The OrthoCarolina Joint Replacement Center in Charlotte, North Carolina offers a broad spectrum of Joint Replacement and Fracture care, including total hip replacement, total knee replacement, and total ankle replacement. As a Joint Replacement Center, we offer state-of-the-art care. We utilize the latest in arthroplasty technology and offer advanced care in a friendly, collaborative environment.

Partial (Half) Knee Replacement: This is also known as ‘unicompartmental’ or ‘Unicondylar’ knee replacement. This is done when only part of the knee joint needs to be replaced.

Your NAV3 Computer Navigated Artificial Knee Replacement surgery in India will probably last for at least 20-25 years, depending on how active you are. This figure is likely to increase as new technology continues to develop. Knee replacement surgery (arthroplasty) is usually needed when:

  • your mobility is severely reduced
  • you feel pain even at restrain and difficulty in moving the knee joint usually occurs when the articular cartilage is damaged or worn away. This means that the ends of the bones tend to rub or grind together instead of sliding smoothly over each other. Replacing the damaged knee joint with an artificial joint can help reduce pain and increase mobility.

Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is the most common reason for knee replacement surgery in India. Osteoarthritis in the knee occurs when the articular cartilage is damaged or worn away due to natural wear and tear. There is little or no protection to prevent the bones from rubbing against each other when the knee moves. The bones can then compensate by thickening and creating bone spurs to repair themselves, but this can actually cause more friction and pain.

Other medical conditions that may make knee replacement necessary include:

  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • hemophilia
  • gout, and
  • damage to the knee joint due to chronic trauma

A medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty removes the damaged bone from the surface of the medial knee joint and replaces the bone with a metal or plastic implant.

Femoral component:

a rod-like implant fixed to the damaged bone.

Patellar component:

a plastic implant to replace the damaged cartilage.

Plastic implant:

for the damaged bone, to help support the new knee replacement implant.

Tibial component:
  • a metal or plastic implant to help support the new knee replacement implant.
  • Bones may not touch the other knee after this procedure.
  • Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is usually performed as a day-case or overnight surgery. This type of knee replacement may have certain advantages over total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and knee joint replacement.
  • For example, UKA can usually be performed without removing the patella (kneecap), which might help you to get back to walking, or even to running, faster than with TKA. This is because the patella might not need to be removed.
  • The surgery can be performed through small incisions, which can mean less pain. Some patients are happy to walk and even run again without a long recovery period. It can take three to five days for the full effect of the surgery to become visible.
  • The metal rod, or tibial component, helps to secure the new knee replacement implant.
  • Tibial implant: the rod-like piece that is placed in the bone to help secure the new knee replacement implant.
Tibial component:
  • Metal, or polyethylene, artificial joint
  • The metal, or polyethylene, the joint is a knee replacement implant that replaces the damaged knee joint.
  • The knee replacement can be made of metal or plastic.
  • The first artificial knee joint, which was made of metal, was introduced in 1970. The metal joint could withstand loads of up to 300 pounds.
  • Knee replacement was introduced in 1975. It was made of polyethylene.
  • The first knee replacement made of polyethylene was made of highly polished plastic and cost around one thousand pounds.
  • It could withstand loads of up to 600 pounds.

When should knee replacement be done?

If you’ve already tried all other non-surgical methods, and your pain is severe even at rest, you may need knee replacement surgery (arthroplasty). Because any type of surgery carries a degree of risk, knee joint replacement surgery is usually only recommended when all other non-surgical methods have been unsuccessful.

Non-surgical methods for relieving knee pain include:

weight event, Physiotherapy to strengthen the muscles around the knee and reduce stress on the joints
using a walking aid such as a cane or crutches, or Painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and steroid injections to reduce swelling and pain.

Most people who undergo knee replacement surgery in India are between the age of 60 and 80. Knee replacements are also likely to last longer in older and generally less active people. All non-surgical options are therefore more likely to be recommended for younger patients. Best knee replacement surgeons in India try to recommend it mostly to young patients and patients with minor knee issues.

However, as the technology used in best knee replacement in India has improved, younger or more active people are now getting better results from knee replacement surgery.

Non-surgical methods

During surgery, the damaged part of your knee joint (the articular cartilage) will be removed and replaced with an artificial knee joint (prosthesis). The prosthesis is made of metal or coated implants and special high-grade plastic components.

An epidural is injected into your spine. This means that you will not be asleep, but you will be less aware of what is happening and you will not be able to feel anything below your waist. The surgery usually takes 45 minutes to an hour.

Complications of knee replacement

All surgery carries some risk. However, most people do not have any complications. Knee replacement surgery (arthroplasty) is now a routine and commonly performed operation in India. Total knee replacement aims to relieve pain, improve quality of life, and improve knee function.

Evidence indicates that the risks of complications are reduced, and patient satisfaction with the outcome is increased if the surgeon is familiar with the procedure and is using advanced technologies such as NAV3 computer navigation technology or robotics.

Your anesthetist and surgeon will be able to answer any questions you may have about your personal risks from anesthetics and surgery.


There is a risk that you may develop an infection after your surgery. The incidence is very low (less than .01%) in our hands for the past 15 years due to strict OT protocols and pre-op adaptation of the patient. We perform all our surgeries in a seamless operation theater with laminar flow.

You may need to take preventive antibiotics before dental work or other surgery after your knee replacement. This is to prevent infection from developing in your replaced knee from elsewhere in the body. Talk to your doctor or specialist for advice.


If there is excessive bleeding during surgery, you may need a blood transfusion to replace the blood you have lost. It’s been a rarity ever since I started using NAV3 computer navigation 12 years ago.


In some cases, you may also have numbness around the scar. This numbness may sometimes never go completely.

Blood clots (thromboses): these can form in the deep veins of the leg (deep vein thrombosis) as a result of reduced movement in the leg during the first few weeks after surgery. They can be prevented by using special support stockings, starting a walking or exercising soon after surgery, and using anticoagulant medications.

Knee replacement recovery

Depending on how you get on in the postoperative period, and the type of knee replacement you’ve had, you’ll probably need to stay in the hospital for 4 to 6 days. Patients who have undergone partial knee replacement surgery (Partial knee replacement surgery in India) have a shorter hospital stay. During your stay in the hospital, you will meet with a physiotherapist who will teach you some exercises to help you recover faster.

For a few days, you will use a frame/walker or crutches to move around. This appointment is usually about six weeks after your surgery.

Knee replacement recovery

Your physiotherapist will give you an exercise program in the hospital. These exercises are an important part of your recovery, so it is important that you continue with them once you are at home.

Knee replacement recovery

We recommend taking short walks and doing simple household activities, such as going up and down stairs. These exercises will help restore your movement and strengthen your muscles. Most people find it possible to resume normal leisure activities 3-6 weeks after their surgery. However, it may take up to three months for your swelling to go down.

You can resume driving as soon as you can bend your knee enough to get in and out of the car, and control the car properly. This is also usually four to six weeks after your surgery, but you should check that you are safe to drive with your physiotherapist or doctor. Most people are also able to return to work around this time, but this will depend on how physically demanding your job is.

You will need to continue to exercise and follow rehabilitation advice to get the best from your knee replacement. Surgery alone will not guarantee improvement in movement and reduction of pain.

How long will the replacement knee last?

Normal wear and tear through everyday use mean that your replacement knee won’t last forever. It is likely that your replacement knee will last at least 20 – 25 years. Revision knee replacement surgery (replacement knee replacement) is usually a more complex and longer procedure than the original surgery (called primary knee replacement). Recovery may also be slow. Success can also vary depending on the reason for the revision. For example, most people are more satisfied (in terms of pain and mobility) after revision surgery to correct joint laxity than they are after revision surgery after joint infection.

Research has shown that patients become less satisfied with their artificial knee each time it is replaced. This is one more reason why you should get your knee replacement with NAV3 computer navigation technology for long-lasting results and a quicker recovery.

Replacement knee

Total knee replacement surgery is a commonly performed surgical procedure in India, which may benefit some patients who have tried other, non-surgical treatment methods (knee braces or shoe inserts, as well as medication) without success. including using. Surgery involves replacing all three compartments of the knee with prosthetic (artificial) parts, with the goal of relieving pain and improving function.

This evaluation includes a review of the patient’s symptoms and medical history, a physical exam, X-rays and laboratory tests, and a thorough discussion of the risks and benefits of the procedure as well as any alternative options.

Replacement knee

After surgery, the patient is given medicines to prevent infection and control pain. Measures are also taken to prevent blood clots; These include taking blood-thinning medications and wearing compression devices and/or special support stockings on the legs.

The patient will work with a physical therapist after surgery to develop a rehabilitation program to strengthen the knee and regain motion.

Patients can usually resume their normal activities within three to six weeks after knee replacement surgery in India and can participate in low-impact activities such as walking, cycling, and swimming after rehabilitation is complete.


GoMedii is a healthcare technology platform focused at In-Patient care that helps through the entire treatment journey from hospital/doctor discovery, treatment planning to pre-treatment & in-treatment at hospitals until the post treatment care. GoMedii is a facilitation engine which comes 1st in the patient treatment value chain and collaborates with all stakeholders of the ecosystem. We help patients at each step of the journey in getting treatment at established & accredited hospitals.

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